Planck mass

The modified Planck-Einstein relation – see the previous chapter – shows “a gleam” of the structure of the underlying quantum fields from which the phenomena in the universe emerge. Not like a geometric concept, but sketchily with the help of simple algebraic descriptions. However, the new constants  – standard length (λ) and standard time (t) – will limit the potential concepts of the exact structure of the quantum fields. Albeit these constants are primary related to the properties of electromagnetic waves.

Anyway, one property of the all-inclusive structure of the quantum fields is unequivocally: the structure itself must be in rest in relation to the phenomena because there is no argument to separate the structure from space itself (see the image below: schematic representation of an imaginary spacial structure with standard length λ).

figure 1

The conclusion that all the quanta transfer in the universe is conserved, is really significant because in daily reality we are not aware of this constant in space and time. If we want to make a concept of this constant in daily reality we have to imagine that every identical volume in the universe transfers the same amount of quanta during the same time. It doesn't matter where this volume exist: in empty space, inside a black hole, inside the sun, etc.

Anyway, this constant is nothing else than a manifestation of the mechanism that is responsible for the main law of physics: the conservation of energy. Moreover, it explains the causation behind the constant speed of light (c) in space that is independent from the velocity of the source from which the light emerges, because length, time and velocity are constants (in relation to quanta).

Nevertheless, the relation between the conservation of single quanta transfer in space and the phenomena that represent more concentrated quanta – e.g. particles – is not clarified.

In other words: "What about mass?"

Einstein's equation E = m c2 describes the equivalence between energy and mass in a special way. Because the equation doesn’t describe the energy contents of the local structure of the distinct quantum fields, it describes the energy that is needed to transform mass into electromagnetic radiation and visa verse (see the image of an electromagnetic wave below).

figure 2

Mass is a concentration of quanta so it must be an integer too in relation to Planck’s constant. The annihilation of a proton and an anti-proton results in high-energy electromagnetic waves (photons). So mass is the sum of a local amount of quanta: n multiplied by h (Planck’s constant). So m = n h.

figure 2a

“True” vacuum space has no phenomena (particles). However, quanta transfer in space is conserved so there is as many quanta transfer as everywhere in the universe. Figure 2a shows a small part of vacuum space and there are some differences between the elements – the structure of the underlying quantum fields – but the average topological deformation of the distinct elements by the amount of quanta is nearly the same. Every element transfers synchronously a quantum during the same time. We cannot observe this transfer of quanta because quanta transfer is at the speed of light.

Figure 2b shows the same small part of vacuum space but now there is a concentration of quanta within the volume.

figure 2b

The concentration of quanta – obtained from the environment – exist within a small number of elements. However, quanta transfer is conserved thus every element transfers 1 quantum at the same time. Even the elements that hold the concentration of quanta.

When we want to move the concentration of quanta – diameter 4 elements – over a distance of 4 elements, the involved elements that hold the concentration can only transfer 1 quantum at the time. So when the concentration of quanta exists of 100.000 h (Planck’s constant) the transfer of the concentration will last 4 x 100.000 t (constant of time = t). That’s why particles don’t move with the speed of light. Just because particles – mass – are concentrations of quanta.

Now it is easy to understand that Planck’s constant represents mass. In fact, the whole volume of the universe represents mass (that's the origin of "dark matter"). However, because we only can observe phenomena that differ from the volume around, "mass" in the physics textbooks meanss a concentration of quanta. That’s what Einstein’s famous equation E = m c2 is about.

Next chapter: "Coulomb force"